Heat exhaustion is the result of dehydration due to intense sweating. Hikers can lose one or two quarts (liters) of water per hour. Symptoms are pale face, nausea, cool and moist skin, headaches and cramps. This will be the very first symptom that a hiker will experience unless when hiking in very hot regions.
TREATMENT:To treat, drink water, eat high-energy foods, rest in the shade and cool the body.
Heatstroke is one of the most life-threatening emergencies. The body's heat system becomes overwhelmed by internal heat and environmental demands. It is usually the first symtpom that a person will have in hot regions. Symptoms include a flushed face, suddenly dry skin, a weak and rapid pulse, high body temperature, poor judgement and disorientation, than unconsciousness.
TREATMENT: Pour water on the victim's head and torso, fan to cool them, move the victim to shade, and remove excess clothing. The victim needs evacuation to a hospital.
Hyponatremiais the old fratenity hazing ritual gone bad. It's more commonly called "water intoxication"and caused by over-hydration. This illness mimics the early symptoms of heat exhaustion. It is the result of low sodium in the blood caused by drinking too much water, not eating enough salty foods, and losing salt through sweating. Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, altered mental states, and frequent urination.
TREATMENT: Eat salty foods. If mental alertness decreases, seek immediate help!
Hypothermia is a life-threatening emergency that can occur in any season. The body cannot keep itself warm,due to exhaustion and exposure to cold, wet, windy weather. Symptoms are uncontrolled shivering, poor muscle control and careless attitude.
TREATMENT: Put on dry clothing, drink warm liquids, warm victim by body contact with another person, protect from wind, rain, and cold.